The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Strong forward linkages ${B}_{i\mathbf{\cdot}}^{N}>1$ |
Limited forward linkages ${B}_{i\mathbf{\cdot}}^{N}<1$ | |||
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Dispersed forward linkages ${V}_{i\mathbf{\cdot}}^{N}<1$ |
Concentrated forward linkages ${V}_{i\mathbf{\cdot}}^{N}>1$ | |||

Strong backward linkages ${B}_{\mathbf{\cdot}j}^{N}>1$ |
Dispersed backward linkages ${V}_{\mathbf{\cdot}j}^{N}<1$ | Key sectors with widely dispersed effects in the economy | Key sectors but with forward linkages concentrated | Sectors with strong, widely dispersed backward linkages but with weak forward linkages |

Concentrated backward linkages ${V}_{\mathbf{\cdot}j}^{N}>1$ | Key sectors but with backward linkages concentrated | Key sectors without widely dispersed linkages | Sectors with strong but concentrated backward linkages and with weak forward linkages | |

Limited backward linkages ${B}_{\mathbf{\cdot}j}^{N}<1$ | Sectors with strong, widely dispersed forward linkages but with weak backward linkages | Sectors with strong but concentrated forward linkages and with weak backward linkages | Sectors with weak linkages |