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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Journal of Economic Structures Cover Image

Table 15 Explaining pro-poor technological change led growth

From: Agricultural Modernization, Structural Change and Pro-poor Growth: Policy Options for the Democratic Republic of Congo

Variables Rural Urban
Household composition   
 Household size (log) 0.262*** 0.327***
 Share of kids in the household −0.216*** −0.308***
 Share of young in the household −0.463*** −0.021
 Share of adults in the household −0.381*** 0.112
 Participation in off-farm activities (share) 0.219*** −0.181***
 Age of household head (log) 7.549*** 7.029***
 Squared age (log) −1.030*** −0.916***
 Years of education (log) 0.007 −0.237*
 Squared years of education (log) −0.010 0.098**
Farm structure   
 Farm-labor relationship   
  Household head or spouse (reference)   
  Other household members 0.027 0.054
  Wage workers 0.415*** −0.060
  Sharecropper 0.213 0.813
  Other 0.174 −0.472*
 Male head with spouse without rights on land 0.100*** 0.137***
 Female head holding rights on land 0.004 0.351
 Male head with spouse with rights on land 0.183* 0.454*
 Farm tools 0.124 −0.543
 Credit 0.166** 0.495***
 Farm tools#credit (interaction term) 0.171** 0.571***
Regional characteristics   
 Farming system −2.606*** −0.660***
 Household index 0.189*** 0.133***
 Unemployment rate 0.452*** 0.127***
 Observations 4767 2192
 Adjusted R 2 0.898 0.897
  1. *p<0.10, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01
  2. Source: Author’s estimations