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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 3 Import penetration and international outsourcing levels for Italy and Portugal, 1995 and 2009.

From: Restructuring of the international clothing and textile trade network: the role of Italy and Portugal

  Italy Portugal
1995 2009 1995 2009
C&T-value added
\(c^{\cdot , {\mathrm{IN}},{\mathrm{for}}/({\mathrm{IN}},{\mathrm{for}}+{\mathrm{OUT}},{\mathrm{dom}})}_{i}\) 0.1463 0.2082 0.2944 0.375
\({c_Z}^{\cdot , {\mathrm{IN}},{\mathrm{for}}/{\mathrm{IN}}}_{i}\) 0.1741 0.1349 0.3264 0.292
C&T-labor
\(c^{\cdot , {\mathrm{IN}},{\mathrm{for}}/({\mathrm{IN}},{\mathrm{for}}+{\mathrm{OUT}},{\mathrm{dom}})}_{i}\) 0.5055 0.6383 0.1823 0.3143
\( c_Z^{{\cdot , {\text{IN}},{\text{for}}/{\text{IN}}}_{i}} \) 0.4828 0.5259 0.2052 0.3223