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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 2 Results for the panel

From: Trade liberalization and premature deindustrialization in Colombia

Variables (1)
OLS
(2)
Within
(3)a
Within with IV
Manufacturing/GDP Manufacturing/GDP Manufacturing/GDP
AET 0.200***
(0.0212)
0.172***
(0.0210)
0.219***
(0.0255)
ME exports/total exports − 0.0690***
(0.00923)
− 0.0501***
(0.0189)
− 0.0425***
(0.0185)
GDP per capita − 0.000252**
(0.000105)
− 0.00126***
(0.000264)
− 0.000770***
(0.000270)
International trade/GDP 0.0509***
(0.0116)
− 0.00874
(0.0219)
− 0.0216
(0.0211)
FDI/GDP − 0.424***
(0.0951)
− 0.284**
(0.112)
− 0.242**
(0.103)
Real exchange rate − 0.0188**
(0.00751)
− 0.0196***
(0.00732)
− 0.0852***
(0.0157)
Constant 19.51***
(1.091)
26.33***
(1.424)
29.83***
(1.722)
Observations 237 237 229
R 2 0.530 0.560  
Countries 8 8 8
  1. Standard errors in parenthesis
  2. *** p < 0.01; ** p < 0.05; * p < 0.1
  3. aThe instrument used, lag of the tariff, is relevant. After running the first stage of the model and estimating the statistic F for the lag, a value of 1187.23 is obtained, with a p-value lower than 0.001, which makes the null hypothesis of irrelevance to be rejected