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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Fig. 3 | Journal of Economic Structures

Fig. 3

From: Role of linkage structures in supply chain for managing greenhouse gas emissions

Fig. 3

Effects of the six determinants defined in this study and two linkages of conventional approaches on changing Japanese GHG emissions in three periods (1990–1995, 1995–2000 and 2000–2005). \(\Delta Q\) means growth ratio of GHG. The other \(\Delta \) mean the average effect of each determinant on GHG. a Shows \(\Delta Q, \Delta {\varvec{d}}, \Delta {\varvec{L}}\Delta {\varvec{y}}\). b Shows \(\Delta FL, \Delta BL, \Delta AV, \Delta KS\). b Includes the results of comparison with conventional methods. Blue triangles show the effects by method 1: \(\Delta \hat{{\varvec{BL}}}^{m1}\), red circles are by method 2: \(\Delta \breve{{\varvec{FL}}}^{m2}\) and green diamonds are by method 3: \(\Delta \hat{{\varvec{BL}}}^{m3}\), \(\Delta \breve{{\varvec{FL}}}^{m3}\)

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