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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 1 Circularity intervention categories

From: Assessing circularity interventions: a review of EEIOA-based studies

Intervention category Description Based on Keywords
Residual waste management (RWM) Related to post-consumption activities where the materials are disposed outside the economy Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2013)
Kirchherr et al. (2017)
Energy recovery
Waste treatment
Closing supply chains (CSC) The re-integration of materials at different levels of the supply chain after being used, via for instance product reuse, component re-use, refurbishing, and recycling Bocken et al. (2016)
Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2013)
Kirchherr et al. (2017)
Product lifetime extension (PLE) Associated with slowing-down the resource use as a consequence of extending lifetime of products, via for instance design for longevity and improved maintenance Bocken et al. (2016)
Kirchherr et al. (2017)
Product lifetime Extension
Resource efficiency (RE) Processes or mechanisms which optimise resource flows by using less resources per unit produced Bocken et al. (2016)
Kirchherr et al. (2017)
Resource efficiency
Material efficiency