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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Journal of Economic Structures Cover Image

Table 4 Unit root testing

From: Innovation, total factor productivity and economic growth in Pakistan: a policy perspective

Variables Level First difference
Constant Constant plus trend Constant Constant plus trend Conclusion
\( {\text{LPN}}_{\text{t}} \) − 2.44 − 2.68 − 8.51* − 8.45* I(1)
\( {\text{LPR}}_{\text{t}} \) − 3.84** − 3.46** − 9.88* − 9.79* I(0)
\( {\text{GDP}}_{\text{t}} \) − 0.38 − 1.69 − 5.30* − 5.30* I(1)
\( {\text{TFP}}_{\text{t}} \) − 2.69** − 1.12 − 5.24* − 6.69* I(0)
  1. Where *and ** denotes 1% and 5% level of significance
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