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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 2 Manufacturing process of tea (Yamanishi 1992; Omori et al. 2017)

From: The growth of the Japanese black tea market: how technological innovation affects the development of a new market

  Weight (g) Moisture content (%) Time Temperature Component change
Raw leaves 110 70–80    
(1) Withering 53 55–60 Natural withering 15–18 h
Artificial withering 12–15 h
25–28 °C Activation of hydrolytic enzyme (β-glycosidase, β-primeverosidase), increase in precursor (alcoholic aroma component)
(2) Rolling 50   60–120 min   Formation of red pigment (theaflavin), increase in aroma component
(3) Fermenting 48   25 °C, 120–50 min
30 °C, 60–90 min
25–30 °C (Humidity over 90%) Enzyme activation such as polyphenol oxidase, increase in various aroma components, formation of red pigment (theaflavin, thearubigin)
(4) Drying 23 3–4 15 min (Firing)
60 min (Drying)
80–90 °C (Firing)
70 °C (Drying)
Generating aroma components (aldehydes, ketones, yonon, lactone, etc.)
Tea (crushed tea) 23 3–4