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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 1 Test of stationarity of health and education expenditures and health output

From: Government expenditure on human capital and growth in Namibia: a time series analysis

VariableLevel1st Diff.2nd Diff.Remark
τττ
Health expenditure− 1.211− 3.255 I (1)
Education expenditure− 0.213− 6.629 I (1)
Life expectancy at birth− 1.416− 0.462− 4.042I (2)
Female mortality rate− 2.4934− 1.634− 5.499I (2)
Male mortality rate− 2.5266− 1.5237− 5.518I (2)
Infant mortality rate0.585− 6.863 I (1)
Under-5 mortality rate0.830− 5.036 I (1)
Fertility rate2.946− 3.393 I (1)
Adult literacy rate− 1.433− 3.266 I (1)
Elderly literacy rate− 0.3441− 4.402 I (1)
Youth literacy rate− 0.9857− 3.4127 I (1)
Primary enrolment rate (G)− 1.273− 1.6022− 7.425I (2)
Secondary enrolment rate (G)− 1.617− 3.521 I (1)
Tertiary enrolment rate (G)− 0.693− 4.927 I (1)
Primary enrolment rate (N)− 2.867− 6.172  I (1)
Secondary enrolment rate (N)− 2.182− 3.876 I (1)
P/C edu. expenditure− 0.214− 6.628 I (1)
P/C health expenditure− 1.213− 3.249 I (1)
P/C total expenditure0.5397− 7.324 I (1)
P/C GDP1.7274− 3.530 I (1)
Critical value at1% = − 3.6891% = − 3.6391% = − 3.646 
5% = − 2.9715% = − 2.9515% = − 2.954