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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 4 Characteristics of sampled households by proportion of earned income.

From: Linking earned income, psychological capital and social grant dependency: empirical evidence from rural KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and implications for policy

 YE = 0% (n = 113)0% < YE < 50% (n = 196)50% = < YE < 100% (n = 71)YE = 100% (n = 68)TotalP value
Gender of household head (GENDER)0.28
(0.45)
0.24
(0.43)
0.46
(0.50)
0.47
(0.50)
0.32
(0.47)
0.000
Level of education (EDUCAT) (years)4.14
(4.12)
4.59
(4.59)
3.97
(4.25)
4.47
(5.04)
4.36
(4.49)
0.716
Experience in farming (EXPERIE) (years)16.26
(13.46)
15.40
(12.42)
16.94
(12.63)
14.01 (10.28)15.65
(12.42)
0.516
Dependency ratio (DEP_RT)0.99
(1.12)
1.00
(1.08)
0.67
(0.63)
0.58
(1.09)
0.88
(1.05)
0.050
Years receiving social grant (SOCG_YRS)8.40
(5.57)
9.45
(7.58)
8.90
(7.18)
0.00
(0.00)
7.67
(7.17)
0.000
Access to social grant (SOCG) (1—social grant and 0—otherwise)0.94
(0.24)
0.96
(0.20)
0.90
(0.3)
0.00
(0.00)
0.80
(0.40)
0.000
Access to credit (CREDIT) (1—credit and 0—otherwise)0.38
(0.49)
0.38
(0.49)
0.45
(0.50)
0.38
(0.49)
0.39
(0.49)
0.735
Membership to social groups (MEM_SOC) (1—member and 0—otherwise)0.58
(0.50)
0.58
(0.50)
0.53
(0.50)
0.47
(0.50)
0.55
(0.50)
0.438
Scheme membership (MEM_SCH) (1—member and 0—otherwise)0.48
(0.50)
0.42
(0.50)
0.41
(0.50)
0.44
(0.50)
0.44
(0.50)
0.722
Amount of land (LAND) (hectares)1.07
(1.56)
1.35
(2.62)
2.93
(4.73)
1.28
(1.85)
1.52
(2.83)
0.000
Distance to the nearest town (MKT_DIST) (minutes)40.13
(26.49)
40.95
(26.65)
33.11
(20.19)
36.13
(25.17)
38.77
(25.56)
0.113
Log of livestock value (LSTK_ASSETS)3.28
(1.43)
3.29
(1.45)
3.54
(1.43)
3.42
(1.48)
3.35
(1.44)
0.580
Log of physical asset value (PHY_ASSETS)3.53
(0.63)
3.55
(0.62)
3.60
(0.68)
3.55
(0.69)
3.55
(0.64)
0.902
Farmer typologies
 Self-reliant & resilient (FT_CLU2)0.21
(0.41)
0.36
(0.48)
0.42
(0.50)
0.34
(0.48)
0.33
(0.47)
0.011
 PsyCap and future-focused (FT_CLU3)0.29
(0.46)
0.26
(0.44)
0.23
(0.42)
0.31
(0.47)
0.27
(0.44)
0.672
 Risk-taking and limited interest in farming (FT_CLU1)0.50
(0.50)
0.38
(0.49)
0.35
(0.48)
0.35
(0.48)
0.40
(0.49)
0.091
Location (dummy)
 Bululwane (LOC_BUL)0.24
(0.43)
0.12
(0.32)
0.03
(0.17)
0.07
(0.26)
0.13
(0.33)
0.000
 Tugela Ferry (LOC_TUG)0.17
(0.37)
0.19
(0.40)
0.10
(0.30)
0.09
(0.29)
0.16
(0.36)
0.094
 Ndumo-B (LOC_NDUM)0.12
(0.33)
0.17
(0.38)
0.48
(0.50)
0.35
(0.48)
0.24
(0.43)
0.000
 Makhathini (LOC_MAKH)0.47
(0.50)
0.52
(0.50)
0.39
(0.49)
0.49
(0.50)
0.48
(0.50)
0.380
  1. In brackets are standard deviations; YE—earned income