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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 1 Descriptive statistics of variables used in the models

From: Do farm-level technical efficiency and welfare complement each other? Insight from Ghana’s cocoa industry

VariableDescription/unit of measureMeanSD
Output/hectareQuantity of cocoa beans per hectare in kilograms452.61282.78
WelfareConsumption expenditure per capita (GH¢)2040.911602.19
Inputs for DEA analysis
 Farm sizeFarm size under cocoa in hectare2.921.75
 Labor per hectareMan-days per hectare (8 h/man-day)110.34101.45
 Fertilizer per hectareQuantity of fertilizer in kilograms per hectare81.1990.44
 Pesticides per hectareQuantity of pesticides in grams per hectare1026.071802.8
Variables for other models
 GenderProportion of male-headed households (male = 1)0.71 
 Household sizeNumber of members in the household6.122.81
 EducationNumber of years in formal education6.415.13
 Non-farm incomeProportion of farmer’s spouse that engage in off-farm income (non-farm income = 1)0.44 
 Cocoa farm incomeIncome from cocoa farm in GH¢8335.016568.44
 Other crops incomeIncome from other crops in GH¢801.661311.79
 Cocoa demonstration farmProportion farmers that had attended cocoa demonstration farms (attendance = 1)0.39 
 Extension serviceNumber of times farmer received extension services1.461.81
 Farm seminar/workshopProportion of farmers that attended farm seminar (attendance = 1)0.485 
 Pesticides applicationFrequency of pesticides application (count)4.622.68
 Number of plotsCount1.370.96
 Brong-Ahafo regionProportion of sample drawn from the region0.18 
 Eastern regionProportion of sample drawn from the region0.24 
 Ashanti regionProportion of sample drawn from the region0.18 
  1. SD standard deviation, GH¢ Ghana’s currency