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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 3 Determinants of technical efficiency and the two-way impacts of efficiency and welfare

From: Do farm-level technical efficiency and welfare complement each other? Insight from Ghana’s cocoa industry

VariableImpact of welfare on efficiencyImpact of efficiency on welfare
1OTE model (welfare)2PTE model (welfare)3Welfare model (OTE)4Welfare model (PTE)
Gender− 0.0100.0310.135a0.052    
Household size0.0040.0040.0070.0040.0120.018− 0.0040.077
Educational attainment    0.0080.0100.110b0.041
Spouse’s non-farm income− 0.0200.038− 0.0240.0320.224a0.0350.199a0.035
Income from cocoa farm    0.188a0.0480.262a0.050
Income from other crops− 0.0010.0020.0020.0070.009b0.0030.004b0.002
Demonstration farm visit0.035b0.016− 0.0100.015    
Extension contact0.0080.0060.0000.0060.021b0.0080.018b0.008
Farm seminar attendance    0.0850.1010.0050.054
Frequency of pesticides application0.028c0.0150.028c0.0140.0020.007− 0.0050.005
Number of farm plots− 0.045a0.0140.0160.012    
Farm size− 0.0070.0110.097a0.0330.015b0.0070.190a0.013
East region− 0.126a0.040− 0.191a0.038− 0.0230.0250.0370.028
Brong-Ahafo region− 0.0290.060− 0.232a0.0540.0250.0270.0060.008
Ashanti region− 0.109b0.044− 0.077c0.0410.0020.0260.0100.008
Log of welfare0.224c0.1340.940a0.307    
OTE (CRS)    3.732c2.047  
PTE (VRS)      1.695a0.417
/Insig_1− 1.367a0.048− 0.898a0.2110.0060.492− 0.757a0.164
/Insig_2− 1.126a0.031− 1.099a0.033− 1.368a0.315− 1.408a0.031
/atanhrho_12− 0.252c0.1511.221a0.259− 1.807a0.521− 0.952a0.222
  1. The superscripts “1–4” indicates the various models estimated
  2. a,b,cDenote significance level at 1%, 5% and 10%. ME and SE indicate marginal effects and standard errors, respectively. OTE and PTE denote overall technical efficiency and pure technical efficiency under the assumption of constant-return scale and variable-return scale, respectively