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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 4 Effect of credit constraints on the choice of adaptation strategies: IV-GMM model

From: Determinants of credit constraints and its impact on the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies among rice farmers in South-West Nigeria

Improved technologyCoefficientStandard errorP-value
Access to climate information5.5022.0140.006a
Predicted credit risk− 4.0311.7070.018b
Predicted credit price− 0.4691.1640.687
Predicted credit quantity− 0.8951.4550.538
Marital status− 0.9540.4910.052c
Educational status− 0.0020.0260.930
Off-farm income4.2240.3270.000a
Farm size0.0250.0590.676
Prolonged drought2.0310.9630.035b
Incidence of flood− 1.7190.9880.082c
Annual temp2.1702.2660.338
Annul ppt0.0170.0110.109
Constant− 65.40363.0260.299
Prob > Chi2 = 0.0000   
R2 = 0.4335   
Wald chi2(18) = 345.32   
Over-identification test
Sargan test (P-value) 0.995
Exogeneity tests: (P-value)
Wu–Hausman F-test
Chi-square test 0.000
  1. a, b, c Represent significance level at 1%, 5% and 10%, respectively; Std. Err is a robust standard error; Location_Ondo was used as the base category