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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 2 Results of Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) unit root test.

From: How far is FDI relevant to India’s foreign trade growth? An empirical investigation

VariablesLevelFirst differenceResult
InterceptTrend and interceptInterceptTrend and intercept
FDI− 0.047034 [3]
(0.9508)
− 2.737981 [2]
(0.2246)
− 9.576341 [2]
(0.0000)
− 9.598985 [2]
(0.0000)
I(1)
FT0.471794 [1]
(0.9848)
− 1.971431 [1]
(0.6081)
− 12.09500 [0]
(0.0001)
− 12.17031 [0]
(0.0000)
I(1)
  1. () MacKinnon (1996) one-sided p values; [] Lag lengths for ADF Test; I(1): Stationary after first difference