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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 3 Results of Phillips–Perron (PP) unit root test.

From: How far is FDI relevant to India’s foreign trade growth? An empirical investigation

VariablesLevelFirst DifferenceResult
InterceptTrend and interceptInterceptTrend and intercept
FDI− 2.272225 [3]
(0.1833)
− 4.771338 [5]
(0.0856)
− 23.66715 [17]
(0.0001)
− 24.78887 [18]
(0.0001)
I(1)
FT0.369675 [3]
(0.9805)
− 2.129533 [1]
(0.5220)
− 11.94672 [2]
(0.0001)
− 12.03251 [2]
(0.0000)
I(1)
  1. () MacKinnon (1996) one-sided p values; [] Lag lengths for PP Test; I(1): Stationary after first difference