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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 7 Description of variables and sources

From: Does financial inclusion reduce poverty and income inequality in developing countries? A panel data analysis

VariablesMeasurementSource
Composite financial inclusion index (cfii)Composite financial inclusion index consists of penetration, availability, and usage dimensions of financial inclusion which is computed by following the methodology proposed by Sarma (2012)FAS database of the IMF
Poverty headcount ratio (lnpovhead)Percentage of total population living on less than USD 1.90 per day at 2011 international prices (PPP)WDI
Income inequality (lngini)Income inequality is measured by the Gini coefficient after deducting taxes and transfers. The SWIID uses multiple imputation technique to convert both micro- and macro-data into a common standard and provides the largest number of observationsSWIID (Version-6.1) constructed by Frederick Solt
GDP growth (gdpgr)Annual GDP growth rate based on constant 2010 USDWDI
Per capita real GDP (lngdppc)Per capita real GDP at constant 2010 USDWDI
Secondary school enrollment ratio (lnssenroll)Gross secondary school enrollment as a percentage of total population, regardless of ageWDI
Rule of law (rule)Rule of law reflects the extent to which agents have abided by the rules of society (estimate of governance ranges from appr. − 2.5 (weak) to 2.5 (strong))World Governance Indicator
Inflation rate (lninflation)Annual percentage change in the average consumer price indexWDI
Credit to private sector (lnpcredit)Domestic credit to private sector by banks as a percentage of GDPWDI
Govt. expenditure (lngovtexp)General government final consumption expenditure as a percentage of GDPWDI
Trade openness (lntradeopen)Sum of exports and imports of goods and services measured as a percentage of GDPWDI
Population (lnpopu)Total residents in a countryWDI
Age dependency ratio (lnagedep)The percentage of dependents (people younger than 15 or older than 64) to working-age populationWDI
Ratio of internet users (lninternet)Individuals using the internet as a percentage of total populationWDI
Mobile users (lnmobile)Mobile cellular subscribers per 100 peopleWDI
ICT capital (lnict)Information and communication technology service exports as a percentage of total service exportsWDI