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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 2 Unit root result for global panel

From: Comparative analysis of the effects of institutional factors and Piketty’s Hypothesis on inequality: evidence from a panel of countries

Variable Levin, Lin and Chu Breitung Im, Pesaran and Shin
Statistic Prob. Statistic Prob. Statistic Prob.
EFW −6.75705 0.0000 −5.15234 0.0000 −4.57693 0.0000
(r−g) −11.0818 0.0000 −7.81387 0.0000 −9.42641 0.0000
Top 10% income share −3.09485 0.0010 −6.22224 0.0000 −2.11443 0.0172
GDP/capita −3.20408 0.0007 −3.50304 0.0002 −1.30504 0.0959
Govt. spending (as  % of GDP) −3.83298 0.0001 0.89541 0.8147 −1.30668 0.0957
Inflation −13.0318 0.0000 −4.25075 0.0000 −8.44915 0.0000
Population growth rate −6.92004 0.0000 −1.24920 0.1058 −9.87550 0.0000
Natural resource rent (as  % of GDP) −4.95464 0.0000 −3.60546 0.0002 −2.41743 0.0078
Gross savings rate (as  % of GDP) −6.57063 0.0000 1.22628 0.8900 −5.50427 0.0000
Tax revenue (as  % of GDP) −3.43201 0.0003 −2.07706 0.0189 −1.86406 0.0312
Trade openness −3.21338 0.0007 0.46771 0.6800 −2.30712 0.0105
Unemployment rate −8.05644 0.0000 −1.99774 0.0229 −5.49416 0.0000
  1. Source Research calculations