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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 3 Dynamic panel data estimates, two-step system GMM

From: Dynamic linkages between poverty, inequality, crime, and social expenditures in a panel of 16 countries: two-step GMM estimates

Variables CRIME POVHCR GINI GDPPC
GDPPC − 0.002 − 0.010a 0.004a
GDPPC2 − 2.07e−07 8.62e−07a − 3.83e−07a
GINI 0.818b 0.179 37.289
EDUEXP 1.427 − 0.985 0.359 − 101.523
HEXP 0.007 − 0.008a 0.001 5.690a
POVHCR 0.253 0.081 − 31.323b
TOP − 0.047c − 0.076 − 0.009 11.022c
UNEMP 0.425b − 0.017 − 0.010 23.808
CRIME 0.304 0.223a 0.679
Constant − 41.627a 38.180b 29.531a 695.364
Statistical tests
 F-statistics 13.87a 4.00a 30.40a 49.64
 Sargan-Hansen Test 0.413 0.102 0.756 0.848
 AR(1) 0.284 0.059c 0.651 0.164
 AR(2) 0.132 0.032b 0.100 0.153
  1. a,b, c indicates 1%, 5%, and 10% significance level