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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 4 IRF estimates

From: Dynamic linkages between poverty, inequality, crime, and social expenditures in a panel of 16 countries: two-step GMM estimates

Response of DLOG (CRIME):
Period DLOG (CRIME) DLOG (POVHCR) DLOG (GINI) DLOG (UNEMP) DLOG (EDUEXP) DLOG (HEXP) DLOG (TOP) DLOG (GDPPC)
 2015 0.108 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 2016 − 0.0006 − 0.009 − 0.0004 − 0.0005 − 0.001 0.003 0.0005 − 0.009
 2017 − 0.006 0.024 − 0.005 − 0.002 0.005 0.007 − 0.009 0.006
 2018 4.74E −05 − 0.003 0.001 0.003 0.003 − 0.0004 0.002 − 0.001
 2019 6.05E−05 − 0.003 − 0.0004 − 0.001 − 0.001 − 0.0009 0.0007 7.27E−05
 2020 − 0.0002 0.0005 4.42E−05 0.0001 − 8.24E−05 0.0004 − 0.0007 0.000647
 2021 4.38E− 05 0.0003 − 2.17E− 05 − 3.35E−05 9.11E−06 − 9.41E−05 0.0003 2.36E−05
 2022 − 1.40E−05 − 0.0001 1.67E−05 − 9.26E−05 − 5.92E−05 4.49E−05 5.62E−05  0.000140
 2023 3.04E−05 4.81E−05 4.41E−05 9.98E−05 − 1.33E−05 1.75E−06 − 6.97E−05 1.03E−05
 2024 2.78E−06 1.05E−05 1.23E−05 − 3.85E−05 − 3.00E−06 − 2.48E−05 2.19E−05 5.90E−06
Response of DLOG (POVHCR):
Period DLOG (CRIME) DLOG (POVHCR) DLOG (GINI) DLOG (UNEMP) DLOG (EDUEXP) DLOG (HEXP) DLOG (TOP) DLOG (GDPPC)
 2015 − 0.089 0.448 0 0 0 0 0 0
 2016 0.039 − 0.058 0.047 0.060 0.032 − 0.023 − 0.011 − 0.026
 2017 0.023 − 0.038 0.009 0.014 − 0.006 − 0.029 − 0.020 − 0.042
 2018 − 0.004 0.010 − 0.004 − 0.013 0.005 0.002 − 0.011 − 0.001
2019 − 0.001 0.004 − 0.004 0.004 0.006 0.004 0.0008 − 0.002
 2020 − 0.000 − 0.003 − 0.001 − 0.0008 0.0005 − 0.001 0.003 − 0.002
 2021 − 0.000410 − 0.001 − 0.0003 − 0.0003 − 0.0006 0.0004 − 0.001 − 0.000
2022 5.08E−05 0.0002 − 0.0001 0.0003 2.83E−05 − 0.0001 − 1.53E−05 − 0.0005
 2023 − 9.16E−05 − 0.0001 − 0.0002 − 0.0003 − 4.76E−05 − 4.20E−05 0.0002 − 0.0001
 2024  2.74E−06 − 1.19E−05 − 4.83E−05  0.0001 − 1.01E−06  7.74E−05 − 8.97E−05 − 8.10E−05
Response of DLOG(GINI):
Period DLOG (CRIME) DLOG (POVHCR) DLOG (GINI) DLOG (UNEMP) DLOG (EDUEXP) DLOG (HEXP) DLOG (TOP) DLOG (GDPPC)
 2015 − 0.0002 0.006 0.022 0 0 0 0 0
 2016 − 0.0006 − 0.0007 0.001 0.002 − 0.001 9.12E−05 − 0.0004 − 0.0004
 2017 − 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.0006 0.001 − 3.32E−05 − 0.0002 5.86E−05
 2018 − 0.0001 7.10E−05 0.0002 − 0.0002 8.98E−05 0.0001 − 3.04E−05 0.0001
 2019 − 1.41E−05 − 0.0004 0.0001 0.0002 0.0001 2.06E−06 − 8.90E−05 0.0001
 2020 − 6.37E−05 6.40E−05 − 1.32E−05 − 9.40E−05 − 2.29E−05 − 2.04E−05 6.65E−05 5.88E−05
 2021 − 2.52E−05 2.25E−05 1.71E−05 − 2.51E−05 3.23E−06 5.03E−05 3.23E−07 0.0001
 2022  9.23E−06 − 2.43E−06 1.77E−05 3.09E−05 − 6.18E−06 − 4.49E−06 1.31E−05  1.67E−05
 2023 − 7.45E−07 − 8.83E−08 8.92E−06 − 1.71E−05 − 8.24E−06 − 4.67E−06 4.76E−06 1.96E−05
 2024 6.68E−07 6.45E−06 5.20E−06 5.13E−06 − 7.18E−07 5.17E−06 − 6.70E−06 1.19E−05
Response of DLOG (GDPPC):
Period DLOG (CRIME) DLOG (POVHCR) DLOG (GINI) DLOG (UNEMP) DLOG (EDUEXP) DLOG (HEXP) DLOG (TOP) DLOG (GDPPC)
 2015 − 0.005 − 0.004 0.002 − 0.009 − 0.003 0.014 0.002 0.028
 2016 − 0.002 0.001 1.48E−06 0.002 − 0.0002 0.004 0.001 0.008
 2017 − 0.001 0.001 0.001 − 0.003 − 0.001 0.0001 0.003 0.006
 2018 − 6.20E−05 0.0002 0.001 0.0006 − 0.001 0.0009 − 0.0002  0.003
 2019 0.0003 0.0006 0.0009 0.0001 − 0.0003 − 0.0003 0.0002 0.001
 2020 3.85E−05 0.0002 0.0004 − 0.0002 − 0.0001 8.60E−05 − 3.97E−05 0.0009
 2021 8.49E−05 0.0002 0.0002 0.0001 1.96E−05 7.14E−05 − 0.0001  0.0004
 2022 2.36E−05 6.57E−05 0.0001 − 4.36E−05 − 2.77E−06 − 3.43E−05 5.19E−05 0.0002
 2023 1.00E−06 3.23E−05 5.74E−05 − 5.90E−06 − 5.82E−06 3.49E−05 − 3.36E−05 0.0001
 2024 9.15E−06 2.64E−05 3.56E−05 1.83E−05 2.83E−06 2.43E−07 − 3.59E−07 6.50E−05
  1. ‘D’ shows first difference, while ‘LOG’ represents natural logarithm