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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 5 VDA estimates. Source: authors’ estimation

From: Dynamic linkages between poverty, inequality, crime, and social expenditures in a panel of 16 countries: two-step GMM estimates

VDA of DLOG(CRIME):
Period S.E. DLOG (CRIME) DLOG (POVHCR) DLOG (GINI) DLOG (UNEMP) DLOG (EDUEXP) DLOG (HEXP) DLOG (TOP) DLOG (GDPPC)
 2015 0.108 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
 2016 0.109 98.336 0.747 0.001 0.002 0.019 0.105 0.002 0.784
 2017 0.113 91.843 5.308 0.203 0.061 0.248 0.554 0.673 1.107
 2018 0.113 91.554 5.382 0.211 0.131 0.331 0.553 0.720 1.113
 2019 0.113 91.436 5.463 0.213 0.148 0.343 0.559 0.723 1.112
 2020 0.113 91.425 5.464 0.213 0.148 0.343 0.561 0.727 1.115
 2021 0.113 91.423 5.465 0.213 0.148 0.343 0.561 0.729 1.115
 2022 0.113 91.422 5.465 0.213 0.148 0.343 0.561 0.729 1.115
 2023 0.113 91.422 5.465 0.213 0.148 0.343 0.561 0.729 1.115
 2024 0.113 91.422 5.465 0.213 0.148 0.343 0.561 0.729 1.115
VDA of DLOG(POVHCR):
Period S.E. DLOG (CRIME) DLOG (POVHCR) DLOG (GINI) DLOG (UNEMP) DLOG (EDUEXP) DLOG (HEXP) DLOG (TOP) DLOG (GDPPC)
 2015 0.457 3.818 96.181 0 0 0 0 0 0
 2016 0.471 4.308 91.952 1.009 1.619 0.474 0.253 0.060 0.321
 2017 0.477 4.453 90.385 1.025 1.669 0.481 0.629 0.237 1.116
 2018 0.477 4.452 90.233 1.034 1.743 0.496 0.630 0.294 1.115
 2019 0.477 4.450 90.192 1.042 1.751 0.512 0.638 0.294 1.117
 2020 0.478 4.450 90.184 1.043 1.751 0.512 0.639 0.298 1.120
 2021 0.478 4.450 90.184 1.043 1.751 0.512 0.639 0.299 1.120
 2022 0.478 4.450 90.183 1.043 1.751 0.512 0.639 0.299 1.120
 2023 0.478 4.450 90.183 1.043 1.751 0.512 0.639 0.299 1.120
 2024 0.478 4.450 90.183 1.043 1.751 0.512 0.639 0.299 1.120
VDA of DLOG(GINI):
Period S.E. DLOG (CRIME) DLOG (POVHCR) DLOG (GINI) DLOG (UNEMP) DLOG (EDUEXP) DLOG (HEXP) DLOG (TOP) DLOG (GDPPC)
 2015 0.023 0.010 7.598 92.391 0 0 0 0 0
 2016 0.023 0.086 7.557 90.966 1.020 0.292 0.001 0.041 0.033
 2017 0.023 0.308 7.649 89.897 1.089 0.963 0.001 0.056 0.033
 2018 0.023 0.311 7.648 89.879 1.098 0.964 0.003 0.056 0.037
 2019 0.023 0.311 7.680 89.833 1.105 0.965 0.003 0.057 0.041
 2020 0.023 0.312 7.681 89.829 1.107 0.96 0.003 0.058 0.041
 2021 0.023 0.312 7.680 89.826 1.107 0.965 0.004 0.058 0.044
 2022 0.023 0.312 7.680 89.826 1.107 0.965 0.004 0.058 0.044
 2023 0.023 0.312 7.680 89.826 1.107 0.965 0.004 0.058 0.044
 2024 0.023 0.312 7.680 89.826 1.107 0.965 0.004 0.058 0.044
 VDA of DLOG (UNEMP):
 Period S.E. DLOG (CRIME) DLOG (POVHCR) DLOG (GINI) DLOG (UNEMP) DLOG (EDUEXP) DLOG (HEXP) DLOG (TOP) DLOG (GDPPC)
 2015 0.242 0.016 2.218 0.101 97.663 0 0 0 0
 2017 0.261 0.584 2.024 0.178 92.177 0.218 1.956 1.917 0.942
 2018 0.261 0.584 2.035 0.212 91.805 0.266 1.988 2.138 0.968
 2019 0.262 0.604 2.031 0.218 91.695 0.267 1.996 2.148 1.036
 2020 0.262 0.605 2.030 0.222 91.678 0.267 1.998 2.157 1.038
 2021 0.262 0.605 2.030 0.223 91.670 0.267 2.002 2.161 1.038
 2022 0.262 0.606 2.030 0.223 91.666 0.267 2.003 2.161 1.040
 2023 0.262 0.606 2.030 0.223 91.666 0.267 2.003 2.161 1.040
 2024 0.262 0.606 2.030 0.223 91.666 0.267 2.003 2.161 1.040
 VDA of DLOG(GDPPC):
 Period S.E. DLOG (CRIME) DLOG (POVHCR) DLOG (GINI) DLOG (UNEMP) DLOG (EDUEXP) DLOG (HEXP) DLOG (TOP) DLOG (GDPPC)
 2015 0.034 2.255 2.080 0.723 7.336 1.314 18.038 0.441 67.808
 2016 0.036 2.418 2.198 0.660 7.015 1.205 17.927 0.633 67.940
 2017 0.037 2.424 2.182 0.858 7.475 1.373 16.925 1.364 67.396
 2018 0.037 2.396 2.160 0.974 7.419 1.430 16.782 1.352 67.484
 2019 0.037 2.399 2.183 1.040 7.403 1.435 16.751 1.354 67.431
 2020 0.037 2.397 2.185 1.051 7.402 1.436 16.737 1.353 67.434
 2021 0.037 2.397 2.189 1.055 7.403 1.436 16.733 1.354 67.430
 2022 0.037 2.397 2.189 1.056 7.403 1.436 16.732 1.354 67.430
 2023 0.037 2.397 2.189 1.056 7.403 1.436 16.732 1.354 67.430
 2024 0.037 2.397 2.189 1.056 7.403 1.436 16.732 1.354 67.430