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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 6 PPG, education, healthcare assessment and crime rates in five different growth phases

From: Dynamic linkages between poverty, inequality, crime, and social expenditures in a panel of 16 countries: two-step GMM estimates

PPG assessment and crime rate
Years IEP GEP TPE PPG index PPG decision Crime elasticity of poverty (CEP)
1990–1994 − 0.630 − 0.023 − 0.629 27.347 Pro-poor 0.081
1995–1999 0.517 − 0.187 0.330 − 1.764 Anti-poor 0.051
2000–2004 0.292 − 0.056 0.236 − 4.714 Anti-poor − 0.008
2005–2009 0.520 − 0.205 0.315 − 1.536 Anti-poor 0.022
2010–2014 0.177 − 0.019 0.158 − 8.315 Anti-poor − 0.029
Pro-poor education (PPE) assessment and crime rate
Years IEP Education elasticity of Poverty (EEP) TPE PPE index PPE decision CEP
1990−1994 − 0.734 0.064 − 0.670 − 10.468 Anti-poor 0.077
1995−1999 0.362 − 0.278 0.084 − 0.302 Anti-poor 0.058
2000−2004 0.160 − 0.057 0.103 − 1.807 Anti-poor − 0.005
2005−2009 − 0.259 − 0.132 − 0.391 2.962 Pro-poor 0.075
2010− 2014 0.057 0.148 0.205 1.385 Pro-poor − 0.037
Pro-poor health (PPH) assessment and crime rate
Years IEP Health Elasticity of Poverty (HEP) TPE PPH Index PPH Decision CEP
1990− 1994 − 0.585 − 0.036 − 0.621 17.25 Pro-poor 0.087
1995− 1999 0.625 − 0.192 0.433 − 2.255 Anti-poor 0.088
2000− 2004 − 0.045 0.040 − 0.005 − 0.125 Anti-poor − 3.60E−05
2005− 2009 0.303 − 0.145 0.158 − 1.089 Anti-poor 0.057
2010− 2014 0.065 0.018 0.083 4.611 Pro− poor − 0.028