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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 4 Granger causality test results

From: Boundaries on Turkish export-oriented industrialization

Dependent variable Log (capacity utilization) Log (export) Log (investment) Log (import) Log (interest rate) Log (debt)
Log (capacity utilization)   .7305 .0004a .4672 .3766 .8401
Log (export) .7504   .4761 .6128 .7530 .6004
Log (import) .1234 .9573 .0867b   7336 .0187a
Log (investment) .0665b .3147   .7857 .0134a .0187a
Log (interest rate) .2459 .0608b .1126 .0935b   .0027a
Log (debt) .0000a .0024a .0000a .0269a .0298a  
  1. Null hypothesis of Granger causality states that test is there is no Granger causality running from one variable to another
  2. aNumbers in the cells are probability values for Granger causality test
  3. bThe italic characters imply the weak causality as probability value is in the range of (.05–.1)