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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 1 Summary of variables

From: The effect of mining foreign direct investment inflow on the economic growth of Zimbabwe

Variable Proxy Supporting Literature
Labor (L) National literate rate from ordinary level passes Khadaroo and Seetanah (2008), Seetanah and Teeroovengadum (2019)
Financial Sector Development (FD) Measured as the ratio of private sector credit to GDP King and Levine (1993), Seetanah et al. (2009), Guru and Yadav (2019)
Openness Level (OL) Measured by (X + M/GDP) Dollar (1992), Warner (1995), Khadaroo and Seetanah (2009)
Domestic Investment Level (K) Measured by national level of capital formation (the ratio of GDFCF to GDP) Bakari (2017), Zekarias (2016)
FDI in the mining sector (FDIM) Measured as the amount of FDI flows to the mining sector as a ratio of GDPData on mining sector FDI has been obtained from Zimbabwe Investment Authority (ZIA) Khadaroo and Seetanah (2008), Fauzel et al. (2018)
FDI in the non-mining sector (FDINM) Measured as the ratio of the non-mining section to GDP (non-mining sector = total FDI–FDI in the mining sector) Author derivation
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