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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 2 Unit root test results

From: Does infrastructure increase exports and reduce trade deficit? Evidence from selected South Asian countries using a new Global Infrastructure Index

 LevelFirst difference
Levin Lin Chu testIM Pesaran testLevin Lin Chu testIM Pesaran test
Export0.941− 0.118− 3.403***− 3.029***
Trade deficit− 1.185**− 0.802− 4.249***− 4.688***
Human capital1.089***0.456***− 4.638***− 4.478***
Exchange rate0.0700.534− 4.402***− 3.762***
Per capita GDP0.4540.761− 4.139***− 3.211***
Institutional quality− 5.636***− 4.804− 3.226***− 3.143***
Transport infrastructure− 2.668***− 2.377***− 7.752***− 8.063***
Telecommunication infrastructure− 1.801***− 2.286**− 4.253***− 6.180***
Energy infrastructure− 1.274***− 2.761***− 4.585***− 4.604***
Financial infrastructure0.176***− 1.593*− 2.049***− 4.661***
Aggregate infrastructure− 2.142***− 2.328***− 6.001***− 7.297***
  1. ****, ** and * denote the significance at 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. All variables are in natural log form. The results are based on intercept and trend