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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 1 Unit root test

From: An empirical retrospect of the impacts of government expenditures on economic growth: new evidence from the Nigerian economy

GE (ADF)0.79380.32680.51960.28490.76730.2114
CE (ADF)0.90960.46860.88470.39980.13810.0208**
NE (ADF)0.99960.25100.28070.49981.00000.0060***
GE (PP)0.35620.32760.51960.41380.69930.0016***
CE (PP)0.99110.50140.72100.51100.13810.0004***
NE (PP)1.00000.21010.19690.59151.00000.0000***
(1st Diff)\(\Delta\) RGDP\(\Delta\) RECEXP\(\Delta\) CAPEXP\(\Delta\) DEBT\(\Delta\) PRIEXP\(\Delta\) INVEST
GE (ADF)0.0196**0.0000***0.0000***0.0430**0.0007***0.0000***
CE (ADF)0.0018***0.0000***0.0000***0.0083***0.0003***0.0000***
NE (ADF)0.0250**0.0000***0.0000***0.0004***0.0037***0.0000***
GE (PP)0.0192**0.0000***0.0000***0.0616*0.0007***0.0000***
CE (PP)0.0018***0.0000***0.0000***0.0121**0.0003***0.0000***
NE (PP)0.0250**0.0000***0.0000***0.0007***0.0042***0.0000***
  1. The superscripts ***, ** and * represent the rejection level at 1%, 5% and 10% levels of significance, respectively. \(\Delta\) denotes first difference operator. Also, RGDP means, real gross domestic product; RECEXP is, total government recurrent expenditures as a percent of GDP; CAPEXP represents, total government capital expenditures as a percent of GDP; DEBT is total public debt as a percent of the GDP; PRIEXP, denotes private consumption expenditure; INVEST, gross domestic investment as measured by annual growth of gross capital formation. Also, GE represents the unit root test model for a random walk variable with both drift and trend parameters; CE is the model with a drift parameter only while NE is a very restricted model to conduct unit root test without a drift and trend. The t-statistics values of the ADF and PP tests were reported