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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

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Table 5 Pairwise Granger Causality Tests results

From: An empirical retrospect of the impacts of government expenditures on economic growth: new evidence from the Nigerian economy

Dependent variablesF-statistics
RGDP_0.218440.058680.366652.62276*0.65548\({\text{PRIVEXP}} \to {\text{RGDP}}\)
RECEXP2.27588_0.679595.9557***1.082130.09020\({\text{DEBT}} \to {\text{RECEXP}}\)
CAPEXP2.357890.63222_4.56949***0.857550.21113\({\text{DEBT}} \to {\text{CAPEXP}}\)
DEBT2.64269*2.253690.95126_2.75143*1.43641\({\text{RGDP}} \to {\text{DEBT}}\)
PRIVEXP1.518490.190572.57333*0.11816_1.17110\({\text{CAPEXP}} \to {\text{PRIVEXP}}\)
INVEST6.34559***1.435871.479083.71925***1.93285_\({\text{RGDP}} \to {\text{INVEST}}\)
  1. The superscripts ***, ** and * represent the rejection at 1%, 5% and 10% levels of significance, respectively. RGDP means, real gross domestic product; RECEXP is, total government recurrent expenditures as a percent of GDP; CAPEXP represents, total government capital expenditures as a percent of GDP; DEBT is total public debt as a percent of the GDP; PRIEXP, denotes private consumption expenditure; INVEST, gross domestic investment as measured by annual growth of gross capital formation