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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 1 A social accounting matrix with surplus and externalities

From: Impact and cost–benefit analysis: a unifying approach

  Activities Commodities Factors Households Government Capital formation ROW Project Total cash outflow Social welfare (real Income effects) Ecosystem services (water, soil, et.) Externalities (pollution, waste, etc.) Natural capital
Activities   Domestic production        Income firms    By products  
Commodities I–O    Consumer expenditure Public expenditure Capital goods expenditure (investment) Exports Capex + Opex Demand     
Factors Value added       Factor employment abroad Net margins (gross margins—Capex-Opex) + labor costs Income factors     
Households    Value added    Finance (loans and equity) Remittances from abroad   Income households Consumer surplus    
Government Indirect taxes Indirect taxes   Direct taxes Transfers Finance Taxes Project taxes Income Gov     
Capital formation     Savings Savings   Savings Project principals + interests and dividends Savings     
Rest of the world   Imports Inc factor Imports Imports Finance    Out FOREX     
Project   Purchases from project   Consumers’
purchases from project output
Project subsidies Project financing    Income project   Project by products   
Total market transactions Cost to firms Supply Factor expenditure Households expenditure Gov. expenditure Investment In Forex       
Social welfare     Consumer surplus          
Ecosystem services Intermediate demand        Intermediate demand   Welfare costs    Sink
Externalities (waste, emissions, etc.) Intermediate demand        Intermediate demand   Welfare costs    Sink
Natural capital Soil degradation, fires, reduction of fertility    Losses of ecosystem services, losses of non use values Pollution abatement and other environmental costs (disposal, health, etc.)    CO2 accumulation (climate change costs)      
  1. The bold characters indicate total transactions in the economy valued at market prices. The row and column totals respectively indicate total receipts and outlays of each account