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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 5 Backward and forward linkages.

From: Diversifying a resource-dependent economy: private–public relationships in the Kuwaiti economy

ISIC Descriptions Backward Forward
Public Private % Public Private %
A B C = (B/A)*100 D E F = (E/D)*100
01–05 Agriculture and Fishing 1.000 1.478   1.000 1.184  
10–14 Mining and Quarrying 1.048 1.753 1.672 6.372 1.164 0.183
15–16 Food products, beverages and tobacco 1.636 1.524 0.932 1.175 1.306 1.112
17 Manufacture of textiles 1.000 1.455   1.000 1.021  
18 Wearing apparel 1.000 1.480   1.000 1.006  
19 Leather 1.000 1.551   1.000 1.043  
20 Wood products 1.000 1.245   1.000 1.014  
21 Paper products 1.000 1.537   1.000 1.237  
22 Publishing 1.000 1.471   1.000 1.323  
23 Petroleum 2.113 1.507 0.713 6.648 1.032 0.155
24 Chemical products 1.987 2.209 1.112 1.129 3.991 3.534
25 Rubber and plastics 1.000 1.766   1.000 1.173  
26 Non-metallic minerals 1.000 1.582   1.000 1.510  
27 Basic metals 1.000 1.335   1.000 1.492  
28 Fabricated metals 1.000 1.384   1.000 1.459  
29–30 Machinery and equipment 1.000 1.355   1.000 1.060  
31 Electrical equipment 1.000 1.353   1.000 1.035  
32–33 Medical and precision instrument 1.000 1.537   1.000 1.032  
34 Motor vehicles 1.000 1.273   1.000 1.001  
35 Transport equipment 1.000 1.354   1.000 1.013  
36 Furniture 1.000 1.310   1.000 1.018  
37 Recycling 1.000 1.581   1.000 1.052  
40 Electricity 2.924 1.000   2.682 1.000  
41 Water 2.835 1.000   1.634 1.000  
45 Construction 1.000 1.739   1.000 1.926  
50 Retail sale and maintenance of automotive fuel 1.000 1.603   1.000 1.104  
51 Wholesale trade 1.000 1.307   1.000 1.736  
52 Retail trade 1.472 1.532 1.041 1.009 2.250 2.231
55 Hotels and restaurants 1.115 1.536 1.378 1.045 2.173 2.080
60 Land transport 1.465 1.578 1.077 1.020 1.193 1.170
61 Water transport 1.180 1.185 1.005 1.000 1.001 1.001
62 Air transport 2.374 1.921 0.809 1.143 1.024 0.896
63 Transport services 1.000 2.435   1.000 2.730  
64 Post and telecommunications 1.000 1.623   1.000 1.752  
65 Financial intermediation 1.126 1.232 1.094 1.656 5.280 3.188
66 Insurance and pension funding 1.000 1.375   1.000 1.021  
67 Finance related services 2.109 1.660 0.787 1.001 1.125 1.124
70 Real estate activities 1.442 1.125 0.781 1.006 3.447 3.427
71 Renting of machinery and equipment 1.000 1.244   1.000 1.386  
72 Computer and related activities 1.000 1.828   1.000 1.174  
74 Other business activities 1.626 1.407 0.866 1.171 2.292 1.957
75 Public administration 1.344 1.000   1.000 1.000  
80 Education 1.137 1.329 1.170 1.040 1.013 0.974
85 Health and social work 1.334 1.313 0.984 1.010 1.156 1.145
90 Sewage and sanitation services 1.600 1.345 0.840 1.000 1.155  
91 Activities of membership organizations n.e.c 1.346 1.494 1.110 1.007 1.007 1.000
92 Recreational, cultural and sporting activities 1.513 1.667 1.101 1.357 1.278 0.942
93 Activities of private households for own use 1.000 1.611   1.000 1.003  
95–96 Activities of private households as employers of domestic staff 1.000 1.000   1.000 1.000  
97–99 Extraterritorial organizations 1.000 1.658   1.000 1.015