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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 3 R&D expenditure equation

From: Innovation, firm productivity, and export survival: firm-level evidence from ASEAN developing countries

Variables Marginal effects on R&D expenditure
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
HHI index 0.537 (0.558) 0.463 (0.563) 0.519 (0.556) 0.458 (0.543) 0.399 (0.565)
MH 0.127** (0.0583) 0.125** (0.0591) 0.123** (0.0587) 0.123** (0.0577) 0.123** (0.0594)
ASEAN (log) − 0.0173 (0.0394) − 0.0112 (0.0396) − 0.0149 (0.0393) − 0.0105 (0.0389) − 0.0102 (0.0394)
Export status 0.0570* (0.0337)     
New entry firm   − 0.0142 (0.0436)    
Non-exporter firm    − 0.0260 (0.0317)   
Continuing exporting firm     0.0747** (0.0350)  
Exit firm      − 0.0488 (0.0425)
Employment (log) 0.0652*** (0.00986) 0.0711*** (0.00956) 0.0669*** (0.0104) 0.0644*** (0.00979) 0.0724*** (0.00972)
Age (log) − 0.0146 (0.0258) − 0.0132 (0.0258) − 0.0152 (0.0258) − 0.0199 (0.0257) − 0.0159 (0.0256)
Foreign ownership (%) − 0.101** (0.0462) − 0.0695 (0.0423) − 0.0767* (0.0430) − 0.0879** (0.0428) − 0.0725* (0.0425)
Country fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sector fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Year fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Observations 605 605 605 605 605
Pseudo-R2 0.269 0.265 0.265 0.273 0.268
  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. Source: author’s calculations using the World Bank Enterprise Survey
  3. ***p < 0.01
  4. **p < 0.05
  5. *p < 0.1