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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 4 Product innovation and process innovation equation

From: Innovation, firm productivity, and export survival: firm-level evidence from ASEAN developing countries

Variables Marginal effects on product innovation Marginal effects on process innovation
R&D expenditure 0.166** (0.0703) 0.281*** (0.0486)
Years of education 0.0181* (0.0102) 0.0165* (0.00880)
Employment (log) 0.0211 (0.0143) 0.0448*** (0.0128)
Age (log) 0.0783* (0.0413) 0.0285 (0.0330)
Foreign ownership (%) − 0.0267 (0.0610) − 0.0996 (0.0655)
Export status − 0.0465 (0.0458) 0.0102 (0.0458)
Country fixed effects Yes Yes
Sector fixed effects Yes Yes
Year fixed effects Yes Yes
Observations 617 607
Pseudo-R2 0.179 0.261
  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. Source: author’s calculations using the World Bank Enterprise Survey
  3. ***p < 0.01
  4. **p < 0.05
  5. *p < 0.1