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The Official Journal of the Pan-Pacific Association of Input-Output Studies (PAPAIOS)

Table 5 Total factor productivity equation

From: Innovation, firm productivity, and export survival: firm-level evidence from ASEAN developing countries

Variables (log) TFP
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Product innovation 0.00665 (0.0162)   − 0.00540 (0.0191)  
Process innovation   0.0301* (0.0157) 0.0323* (0.0175)  
Product X process     0.0141 (0.0188)
Imported license technology 0.0713*** (0.0177) 0.0709*** (0.0186) 0.0711*** (0.0186) 0.0734*** (0.0186)
Age (log) − 0.00185 (0.0119) − 0.00406 (0.0134) − 0.00387 (0.0134) − 0.00323 (0.0135)
Employment (log) − 0.0109** (0.00452) − 0.0114** (0.00498) − 0.0114** (0.00498) − 0.0101** (0.00494)
Foreign ownership (%) 0.0466* (0.0248) 0.0579** (0.0270) 0.0577** (0.0271) 0.0561** (0.0271)
Country fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sector fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes
Year fixed effects Yes Yes Yes Yes
Constant 2.255*** (0.0640) 2.178*** (0.151) 2.247*** (0.0702) 2.246*** (0.0704)
Observations 503 453 452 452
\(R^{2}\) 0.577 0.590 0.589 0.586
  1. Standard errors in parentheses
  2. Source: author’s calculations using the World Bank Enterprise Survey
  3. ***p < 0.01
  4. **p < 0.05
  5. *p < 0.1